Essay: Rivers in Nepal
Level: VIII-X Time: 30 minutes
Topic: Rivers in Nepal Full marks: 10-12
Total paragraphs: 4
Total words: 323Nepal is rich in water resource. There are many small and big rivers. These are the natural gifts for Nepal. It is proved by the fact that Nepal is the second richest country in the world after Brazil in water resource. Most rivers in Nepal originate from the snow clad mountains. Among these rivers in Nepal Koshi, Gandaki, Narayani and Karnali are some of the biggest rivers which flow from the Himalayas all through the year. Koshi is considered as the largest and Karnali is considered as the longest rivers in Nepal. Similarly, there are other rivers such as Bagmati, Bheri, Rapti, Kamala, Seti, Marshyangdi, etc. And many zones of Nepal are named after these rivers.
Rivers are known as the white gold in Nepal. Rivers have been used to generate hydroelectricity. For example, Sunkoshi, Marshyangdi and Trishuli are some of the leading hydroelectricity projects in Nepal. Since Nepal is an agricultural country, the multipurpose river projects have eased the farmers in the terai and some hilly regions in irrigation and having multiple farming. Besides, these projects also have helped in the supply of drinking water in many parts of Nepal. Some of the big rivers like Narayani and Kali Gandaki have also provided a good navigation service to facilitate the villagers and the tourists. Another important use of rivers in Nepal is the most famous rafting sport. Mostly Bhote Koshi, Karnali and Trishuli are well known for rafting. They are helping Nepal to earn a substantial foreign currency which adds to the lions share of the national economy.
It is therefore essential for Nepal to value and exploit the potential of these rivers in a sustainable manner. There is no denying the fact that Nepal can sell its electricity to its gigantic neighbours India and China thereby adding a huge foreign currency into the pocket of its budget. The future of Nepal can be brightened if water resource is utilized well.
In this question, our topic has two major words at the focus. They are Rivers and Nepal; therefore we have to show the relationship in between them. Understand the topic well first. On many occasions, students deal with only one part of the topic which makes them deviate from the content thereby resulting in poor performance in tests and exams.
Pay more attention on writing the introducing and the concluding paragraphs. Make these two paragraphs short and specific. Do not end your essay with any negative aspect of the topic. Always end with a positive note and emphasis. Use connectives wherever necessary, but do not overuse them. Use them most importantly for connecting one paragraph with the other.
© Jaya Narayan Bhusal GEMS Dept of English/ ELT Materials /Writing /Monday, April 25, 2012
State of water environmental issues
STATE OF WATER RESOURCES
Nepal is among the richest in terms of water resource availability and it is one of the most important natural resource of the country. Water resources are abundant throughout the country in the form of snow covers, rivers, springs, lakes, and groundwater. The total renewable water resource of the country is estimated to be 237 km3/year (225 km3/year for surface sources and 12 km3/year for groundwater sources) and per capita water availability for 2001 was 9600 m3/capita/year.
Snow cover in Himalayas provides huge natural storage of freshwater. Glaciers, permafrost, and glacial lakes are main forms of water storage. Snow-melt discharges from Himalayas maintain the water levels in downstream rivers and wetlands and thereby provide vital ecosystem services and support dependent livelihood. There are about 3,252 glaciers with total coverage of 5,323 km2 in Nepal. Similarly, there are about 2323 glacial lakes located in this region with total coverage area of 75.70 km2. Due to impacts of global warming and climate change phenomenon glaciers are retreating at alarming rate and glacial lakes are expanding rapidly. Glacial Lake Outburst Flood (GLOF) disaster poses imminent risk to downstream infrastructure, households and livelihood. In Nepal at least 12 GLOF events have been reported to date and about 20 glacial lakes are identified as potentially dangerous from GLOF.
Whole Nepal is a part of the Ganga Basin and it is estimated that approximately 70% of dry season flow and 40% of annual flow of the Ganga River comes through Nepal. It is estimated that there are altogether 6,000 rivers (including rivulets and tributaries) in Nepal and drainage density is about 0.3 km/km2. The cumulative length of rivers is 45,000 km. There are 1000 rivers longer than 10 km and about 24 of them are more than 100 km. Rivers in Nepal can be classified into three broad groups on the basis of their origin. The first group of rivers is snow fed-types such as the major rivers systems: the Koshi, Gandaki, Karnali, and Mahakali. They originate from snow and glaciated regions in Himalayas and their flow regimes are mostly governed by the melting of snows and glaciers. As a result, flow in these rivers is perennial and sustain flow during the dry season. These rivers are reliable source of water and also provide potential opportunities for hydro-power generation and irrigation in the downstream. The second group of rivers originates in the middle mountains and hilly regions. Their flow regimes are affected by both monsoon precipitation and groundwater. Contribution from groundwater yield maintains the minimum flow level and prevents from drying during non-monsoon periods. The Bagmati, Kamala, Rapti, Mechi, Kankai, and Babai rivers fall into this group. The third group of rivers originates in Siwalik zone. Tinau, Banganga, Tilawe, Sirsia, Manusmara, Hardinath, Sunsari and other smaller rivers are examples of rivers falling in this group. The flow in these rivers is mostly dependent on monsoon precipitation and their flow level could deplete significantly low during the non-monsoon period. Summer monsoon is important period when about 60-85% of annual runoff of all river systems in Nepal occurs during July to September.
River water discharge flowing through Nepal
There are numerous enclosed water bodies all over Nepal and those includes lakes, ponds, dams, and other small wetlands. Recent report of the National Lakes Conservation Development Committee has identified total 5,358 lakes in Nepal (including 2323 glacial lakes). Lakes are spread at different elevation as well as along entire east-west longitudinal range. There are nine wetland identified as Ramsar sites in Nepal.
|1.||Koshi Tappu||17500||90||90||Terai||Eastern Nepal|
|2.||Jagadishpur Reservoir||225||195||195||Terai||Western Nepal|
|3.||Ghodaghodi Lake Area||2,563||205||205||Terai||Far-Western Nepal|
|4.||Beeshazari and Associated Lakes||3,200||285||285||Terai||Central Nepal|
|5.||Mai Pokhari||90||2100||2100||Middle Mountain||Eastern Nepal|
|6.||Rara Lake||1,583||2990||2990||High Mountain||Mid-Western Nepal|
|7.||Phoksundo Lake||494||3610||3610||High Mountain||Mid-Western Nepal|
|8.||Gosaikunda and Associated Lakes||1,030||4700||4700||High Mountain||Central Nepal|
|9.||Gokyo andAssociated Lakes||7,770||5000||5000||High Mountain||Eastern Nepal|
|Source: NLCDC (accessed 15 Feb. 2011)|
Other important lakes include Phewa, Rupa, and Begnas in Pokhara (Kaski district). These enclose water bodies are important source of water for irrigation, recreation, fishing and other domestic uses. In addition these are habitats for different flora and fauna. Wetlands are sanctuary for migratory birds and other fauna. The wetlands of the country's lowlands alone support 32 species of mammals, 461 species of birds (among which 15 species are rare), 9 species of turtle, 20 species of snake and 28 species of fish.
Nepal also has abundant groundwater resources. The estimated renewable groundwater potential of the country is estimated to be 12 km3. They are major source of domestic uses and irrigated agriculture in Terai regions. Apart from Terai region, cities such as Kathmandu are highly dependent on groundwater resources to fulfil daily water needs. Groundwater discharges are vital for maintaining water levels in rivers originating from Middle Mountains. "Groundwater Depletion in Kathmandu Valley: Need for Management"