French And Indian War Dbq Essay Graphic Organizer

North American Alliances

By the mid-eighteenth century, the face of North America was changing. The British soldiers, officials, and colonists were moving west from the Atlantic coast and starting to cross into the Ohio River Valley. The Spanish occupied a vast region extending from the Gulf of California, across the desert, and along the Gulf Coast to Florida. The French settled primarily in New France, the area that would later become Canada.

The changes in North America were dramatic for the Native Americans. European expansion displaced many indigenous peoples. European diseases decimated whole tribes. Changing trade relations and the arrival of firearms allowed some tribes to become more powerful and expand their influence at the expense of rival tribes. The Native American tribes often struggled against each other as much as against the whites.

Both Europeans and Native Americans took advantage of shifting alliances within and between factions to expand territory, gain prestige, and settle grudges. In the 1600s, Native Americans were seen as obstacles to European advancement. By the 1700s, a new collection of allies and rivals developed as the political battles of Europe merged with the existing tensions among the Native American tribes of the New World.

One system of alliances pitted the French and the Huron Indians against the English and the Iroquois Indians. France and the Huron Indians had allied themselves as early as the 1600s in Quebec. The relationship between the French and the Huron dated back to the early 1600s when French fur-traders and explorer Samuel de Champlain established a friendly relationship between the Quebec settlers and the Huron. The Huron asked for, and received, assistance from the French in overcoming their primary rival, the Iroquois tribe of upper New York. Meanwhile, the British developed a trade relationship with the Iroquois. As a result of this relationship, the Iroquois aligned themselves with the colonists and became extensions of British authority just as the Huron became an important tool for French ambitions.

Tensions mounted as the settlers of New France wanted to increase their land holdings to build up the fur trade. Their primary focus was the lush Ohio River Valley and the Great Lakes. Meanwhile, the British also started moving into the Ohio River Valley, with the Crown granting lands to companies such as the Ohio Company to encourage settlement.

The conflict between the British and the French in North America played into power struggles in Europe. In the 1740s war broke out between George II of England and his allies in northern Germany against France and Austria who had connections to the Hapsburg rulers of Spain. As part of this struggle for power, in 1745, the British captured the French city of Louisbourg, in what is now Nova Scotia. The French tried to retake the area but were unsuccessful. With the French on the St. Lawrence threatening British holdings on the Atlantic coast, colonists in New England began contemplating an invasion of Canada to prevent the French from gaining any strongholds in North America.

A peace treaty in 1748 was only a temporary lull in the hostilities. By the 1750s, tensions in North America were again on the rise. The French, under New France’s leader Marquis Duquesne, established new settlements in the North American interior and unsuccessfully tried to persuade the Iroquois to break their ties to Britain. As the French prepared to mount an attack, the British were making plans for an attack of their own.

In 1754, the Virginia government dispatched 22-year-old Lieutenant Colonel George Washington with 150 men to an area near the forks of the Ohio River in modern-day Pennsylvania, where the French were building a fortified post named Fort Duquesne. Washington hoped to prevent the French from completing the fort, and to develop the fort for the British. However, before Washington and his troops reached the Fort, they came into contact with a small contingent of French and Huron Indians in the woods. After a bloody battle, the French and Indians emerged as victors. They allowed Washington to retreat with what was left of his troops. This battle marked the beginning of the French and Indian War.

In that same year, colonists called for an intercolonial congress—a meeting of representatives of all British colonies and six allied Native American nations to develop a plan to defend their land from the French. The congress took place in Albany, New York, where Benjamin Franklin, one of the congress organizers, proposed the Albany Plan of Union. The plan focused on two issues: developing a colonial force of defense, and self-imposed taxation to pay for that defense.

However, the distance and harsh traveling conditions kept representatives of six colonies from attending. Furthermore, although colonists agreed that unification was their goal, they could not agree on the terms. Colonists were not happy with the prospect of taxation, just as the British government was unhappy with the prospect of more colonial self-control. Even though the representatives returned home with no consensus having been reached, they had laid the groundwork for the republic that would eventually become the United States of America.

By 1756, the tensions in North America developed into a global conflict. Previous global conflicts had started in Europe and spread to the colonies, but this was the first example of aggression that started in the colonies and spread to Europe. Battles between Britain, France, Spain, and other European powers erupted in the West Indies, the Philippines, Africa, and Europe. This conflict, which started in North America as the French and Indian War, came to be known as the Seven Years’ War in Europe.

Britain emerged as the eventual victor in this war, but the triumph did not come easily. The British and colonial forces were notoriously disorganized and lost several battles along the way. In 1755, British General Edward Braddock lost an important battle, as well as his own life, when he set out to capture Fort Duquesne. Prior to arriving at the fort, he met a small contingent of French and Indian troops, which, despite being outnumbered, quickly dispatched Braddock’s troops. Among the routed British troops was Braddock’s second-in-command, George Washington, a veteran of the battle near Fort Duquesne in 1754.

To the British, the true hero of the war was William Pitt, who became prime minister of England in 1756. His administration orchestrated a British offensive under the command of Lord Loudon that finally succeeded in toppling Fort Duquesne in 1758. It was promptly renamed Pittsburgh in honor of the prime minister.

Pitt then set out to conquer the heart of French holdings in North America: the Montreal-Quebec area of New France (Canada). Pitt put James Wolfe in charge of a sneak attack on Quebec. Although Wolfe and his French counterpart, Marquis de Montcalm, were killed in the battle, the French surrendered, and the Battle of Quebec became the defining battle in the French and Indian War. With this victory in 1759, and a victory over Montreal a year later, France was removed from power in Canada. The Paris Peace Settlement of 1763 confirmed that France no longer held control over any part of North America, except for two small islands near Newfoundland.

Proclamation of 1763

The British victory opened new territory for exploration and expansion, but it also brought the responsibility for overseeing three troublesome groups. The first were thousands of resentful former French subjects. French settlements remained in Canada and even today the French are a prominent minority in Quebec and Montreal. To keep the settlements under control, the British maintained a close watch and employed harsh tactics to quell rebellion. One tactic was mass deportation of former French colonists. One group, the Acadians, left New France and settled in Louisiana, particularly around New Orleans. Over time, the name Acadian was condensed to the now familiar “Cajun.”

France’s Native American allies were Britain’s second problem. With Britain’s victory in the French and Indian War, the Indian supporters of the French were now in a precarious position. The French were no longer able to back their Indian allies, which left tribes such as the Huron out of an increasingly British-dominated power and trade network. While the French tended to develop trade and mission connections with local tribes, the British colonial authorities were much more inclined to remove indigenous peoples altogether and clear the land for white settlement. Some tribes feared that the influx of British colonists would result in their eventual removal from their lands.

With the colonists marching forward onto his people’s land, Chief Pontiac of the Algonquian-speaking Ottawa tribe led a bloody rebellion that resulted in the death of thousands of soldiers and settlers. The Ottawa besieged all but three of the British forts west of the Appalachians.

The British countered by giving smallpox-infected blankets and handkerchiefs to the Indians. This disease swept through the Indian tribes and decimated their forces. The British regained the upper hand, but nonetheless realized the need to cohabitate peacefully with the Indians to prevent further turmoil.

The third troublesome group was, ironically, the British colonists, who were beginning to test the boundaries of Britain’s rule and were becoming increasingly aggressive toward the natives. In an attempt to maintain the situation until a peaceful resolution could be reached, London’s government issued the Proclamation of 1763, which called for a halt to westward expansion beyond the Appalachians. The desired effect of this proclamation was two-fold. First, the Britons hoped to keep the colonists tied more closely to English colonial authorities by confining them to the coast. Second, the Seven Years’ War had put England in dire financial straits, and keeping colonists east of the Appalachians would facilitate the collection of taxes and allow England to refill its coffers.

However, the Proclamation incensed the colonists, who felt they had earned the right to expansion by risking their lives in the new country. They openly defied British rule and rushed westward, creating new settlements, facing new challenges, and becoming more self-reliant.

The Proclamation of 1763 surfaced some resentments harbored by the colonists as a result of the French and Indian War. The colonists who fought alongside their British counterparts viewed the Brits as overly and unnecessarily formal. The colonists preferred Indian-style guerrilla tactics, while the British favored organized entry into battle. Colonists in New England also resented having to quarter British troops in their homes during the war. And Britain’s attempts to tax the colonists to pay for Britain’s wartime support angered the colonists.

In addition, Britain’s authoritarian rule over Canada brought deep concerns to the settlers. The loss of liberties in Canada, such as the right to trial by jury, raised fears among colonists that the Crown might impose a similar rule in New England. To the British, the end of the French and Indian War was a costly victory but one that opened the North American continent to their total control and development.

To the colonists the war was one of the first signs that they were not just transplanted Englishmen. They were a society with their own traditions, customs, and identity that was increasingly distinct from the mother country. They also had realized they had the resources to handle some of their own affairs without looking to Britain for support.

At one time, the British government was an important source of support and protection for the colonies. Increasingly, the British government was perceived as a nuisance whose demands for taxes became symbolic of an increasingly irrelevant colonial authority.

Aboukhadijeh, Feross. "French and Indian War" Study Notes, LLC., 17 Nov. 2012. Web. 13 Mar. 2018. <>.


Welcome to APUSH.  This is a full year course designed to coincide with the APUSH College Board Exam that will take place in May.  This website will provided all students with access to most of the information necessary to succeed in this rigorous course.  Below you will find the following information: 


   I.    Links to important course documents, including a syllabus.

   II.  Links to important coursework relating to all 9 periods of study in APUSH, beggining with a "Key Concept" for each period.


I.  Course Documents:

APUSH Syllabus

APUSH Course overview

APUSH Exam description 

Tom Richey review materials 

SOAPSTone Graphic Organizer

DBQ outline template 

 DBQ guidelines


II.Units of Study:   

PERIOD 1:  1491-1607:

Key Concept:  Contact among Europeans, Native Americans, and Africans resulted in the Columbian Exchange and significant social, cultural, and political changes on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean.


Intro video and links for period 1


PERIOD 2:  1607-1754:

Key Concept:  Europeans developed a variety of colonization and migration patterns, influenced by different imperial goals, cultures, and the varied North American environments where they settled, and they competed with each other and American Indians for resources.


Letter from a Virgina Colonist to England

Comparsion chart of Spanish, French, and Dutch settlement 

Chesapeake settlement notes 

Jamestown tour

Pilgrims Puritans and New England statements 

John Winthrop, Modelle of Christian Charity 

Liberty: Moral vs Natural 

Moral vs Natural Liberty reading excerpt 

CH 3 Overview and Middle Colonies notes 

PA Immigrant accounts 

Mercantilism excerpts 

Salem Witch Trials video clip and article 

Salem Witchcraft documents 

Origins of American Slavery 

Slavery Statements Worksheet 

Bacon's Rebellion 

Bacon's Rebellion Questions 

Great Awakening Notes 

Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God 

Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God worksheet 


PERIOD 3: 1754-1800:

Key Concept:  The American Revolution's democratic and republican ideals inspired new experiments with different forms of government.


French-Indian War worksheet 

Being a British Colonist lecture 

French-Indian War reading

Boston Massacre documents 

Common Sense, Thomas Paine 

"The Crisis" excerpts 

 Declaration of Independence

Battles and Events of the American Revolution 

A Patriot's letter to his Loyalist Father, 1778 

Reading Excerpts: Women and Slaves in the American Revolution

 Confederation Government Notes

Ratification of The Constitution notes 

Beliefs of the Framers worksheet

Washington's Rules of Civility 

Washington's Presidency 

Washington's Farewell Address 


PERIOD 4:  1800-1848:

Key Concept:  The United States began to develop a modern democracy and celebrated a new national culture, while Americans sought to define the nation's democratic ideals and change their society and institutions to match them.

 John Adams Presidency

Alien and Sedition Acts

Alien and Sedition Acts activity 

Election of 1800 article 

12th amendment article

Jefferson Statements activity

Industrial Revolution Notes

Industrial Revolution review questions 

Slavery population stats

Jefferson and Race 

Harrison letters to Tecumseh and Knox 

War of 1812 Overview 

Treaty of Ghent prompt

Monroe Doctrine notes

Sectionalism reading 

Sectionalism, Panic of 1819, Missouri Compromise worksheet

 Jackson's Inauguration

Chapter 9 notes 

Jackson review questions 

 Indian Removal

Andrew Jackson response prompt

 CH 10 Slavery google doc template

CH 10 Notes, Rise of the Whigs 

Democracy in America Excerpt assignment 

CH 11 Notes 

Romantics and Transcendentalists 


PERIOD 5:  1844-1877:

Key Concept:  Intensified by expansion and deepening regional divisions, debates over slavery and other economic, cultural, and political issues led the nation into civil war.


Westward Expanison, Compromise of 1850, and practice essay questions 

CH 12 Flow Chart: Prelude to Civil War 

Fugitive slave ads


The Slavery Barometer 

CH 12 Review Questions 

Dred Scott video 

John Brown lecture (just until 6 minute and 55 second mark) 

Civil War powerpoint 

Shiloh and Antietam Notes

Antietam video clip 

1863 turning point reading 

Emancipation Proclamation activity 

Gettysburg and Vicksburg notes

 Reconstruction video link

Reconstruction notes

Eric Foner quotes from Lecture on Reconstruction 

Freedman's Bureau primary sources 

 Click here for link to KKK victim's accounts

Grant article 

Presidents bios, Johnson through Harrison 

Compromise of 1877 notes 

Louis Farrakhan speech excerpt 


PERIOD 6: 1865-1898:

Key Concept:  Technological advances, large scale production methods, and the opening of new markets encouraged the rise of industrial capitalism in the United States.


Chapter 15 notes

A Century of Dishonor excerpt 

Click here for link to Transcontinental Railroad primary sources 

CH 16 AND 17 Notes 

Andrew Carnegie, Gospel of Wealth Excerpts

Looking Backward Excerpts 

Jacob Riis photos 

Populism activity

Electin of 1896 notes

Gilded Age terms list, ch 15-18 


PERIOD 7: 1890-1945:

Key Concept:  Growth expanded opportunity for Americans, while participation in a series of global conflicts propelled the United States into a position of international power while renewing domestic debates over the nation's proper role in the world.


Immigration Notes

Jacob Riis Photos 

political machines primary sources 

Political Machines analysis 

Progressive Movement activity

Progressives values notes

Election of 1912 notes 

Progressivism and womens suffrage notes 

Womens Suffrage Reading 

Election of 1912 video, watch from 22min into the video until 32-33 minutes 

Progressive review questions 

Imperialism quotes 

CH 23 Notes

Spanish American War notes

 Theodore Roosevelt's letter on the sinking of the Lusitania

Panama Canal excerpts 

WWI overview

Zimmerman Note 

 WWI Causes for U.S. Entry

End of WWI Notes

Stock Market Crash Video

Stock market crash video worksheet

Great Depression Statistics

Great Depression Aid activity 

New Deal Critics Notes 

 New Deal Programs List

New Deal Practice questions 

WPA Posters and Pictures 

U.S. Foreign Policy 1920-1941 Notes 

 1941 Timeline

European and Pacific Theatre Questions 

A bomb press release 


PERIOD 8: 1945-1980:

Key Concept:  Postwar economic and demographic changes had far-reaching consequences for American society, politics, and culture.


Cold War Timeline 

 John Lewis Gaddis, Origins of the Cold War lecture

Foreign Policy categorization activity 

 Click here for Truman letter to Acheson about McCarthy

HUAC and the Hollywood Ten activity 

Containment Notes

Eisenhower and The Cold War notes 

Vietnam War Timeline 

 Vietnam War T/F Statements

fortunate son lyrics 

50s v. 60s Activity 

Rules for Riding Desegreagated buses 

Civil Rights Timeline 

Rights Revolution Chart
Watergate Scandal Timeline



Key Concept:  The end of the Cold War and new challenges to U.S. leadership forced the nation to redefine its foreign policy and leadership role in the world.


Reagan and Conservatives notes 

 Reagan and Cuomo Primary sources

Carter and Reagan foregn policy notes

George HW Bush Notes 




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